Here, we have outlined some details of the mechanisms involved in chronic infection of the central nervous system and the way cells are affected by harmful bacteria.
Toxins and Chronic Infections of the Central Nervous System
Some bacteria cause disease by producing poisonous chemicals known as toxins. These chemicals may destroy specific body cells or enter cells and alter their chemical processes. Some toxins are released from bacteria when they die and may cause shock and fever.
The toxin is released into the body by the bacterium and attaches to a body cell. It is then absorbed into the fluid cytoplasm.
The toxin disrupts normal chemical reactions inside the cell, so that the cell is unable to function and dies.
Bacterial invasion of a cell : Intercellular & Chronic Infections
A few bacteria damage tissues in the human body not by secreting toxins but by directly invading the cells. Once inside body cells, the bacteria reproduce and eventually burst out, rupturing the cell membrane.
Different bacteria are specifically attracted to certain body cells. Bacteria enter the cell through the membrane and use the cell nutrients.
The bacteria multiply in the cell. In the case of chronic infections, the bacteria live in the cell without killing it but hijack the metabolism of the infected cell.
Borrelia spp. tend to migrate to cells in the central nervous system. They then disrupt the metabolism of cells in this area such as neurons, astrocystes, microglia and Schwann Cells, causing mini sepsis which, in turn, leads to neurodegenerative symptoms.